Meta-Synthesis & Meta-Analysis Informing Proposal Development

To inform the development of our proposal, we conducted a meta-synthesis and meta-analysis focused on our 3 partner regions using databases developed through our previous research to characterize the role of gender, social inequities, adaptation, and Indigenous Knowledge at the climate-health-food nexus.

Meta-Synthesis & Meta-Analysis Data:
  • We used data collected via the Team’s previous research program, the Indigenous Health Adaptation to Climate Change (IHACC) program (www.ihacc.ca). The data obtained throughout the IHACC project were collected using community-based, participatory research (CBPR) methods. These methods rely on collaboration and equal partnerships between researchers and community members, involving local stakeholders throughout the research process. In this context, community members assume a greater ownership of the research process and they directly and meaningfully benefit from research-related activities. The goal of such an approach is to empower community members while encouraging a culture of respect and trust between research participants and investigators.
  • A variety of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) qualitative methods were employed throughout IHACC, in all three research regions. PRA methods are ways of obtaining qualitative information through alternative means which are culturally appropriate for rural populations with typically lower education levels. Photovoice, transect walks and focus group discussions are example of such data collection methods.
  • Semi-structure interviews and surveys were also used to collect qualitative and quantitative data throughout IHACC. Individual, household and food security surveys were designed and adapted in all three regions to provide socio-economic, demographic and dietary information about the population surveyed.

 

Summary of meta-synthesis data sources for all three regions:

Uganda Databases

Quantitative data Qualitative data
  • >1749 Household surveys
  • >3266 Individual surveys
  • >1874 Food security surveys

 

  • >84 semi-structured interviews with key informants and community members
  • >30 Focus groups discussions
  • >33 Photovoice participants

Peru Databases

Quantitative data Qualitative data
  • >581 Household surveys
  • >1899 Individual surveys
  • >762 Food security surveys
  • >11,000 hospital records
  • >123 Semi-structured interviews with community members and key informants
  • >5 Focus groups discussions
  • >39 Photovoice participants
  • >40 participants in rapid rural appraisal activities such as transect walks

Arctic Databases

Quantitative data Qualitative data
  • >1170 Iqaluit AGI surveys
  • >1174 Iqaluit Food security surveys
  • >1370 Rigolet short questionnaires (prevalence questions)
  • >192 semi-structured interviews with community members and key informants
  • >2 Focus groups discussions
  • >14 Photovoice participants
  • One participatory video workshop

 

Meta-Synthesis Methods:

Our comparative analysis methods included meta-synthesis and meta-analysis. Meta-synthesis was used to interpret our qualitative data and to understand and explain climate-health phenomena and needs, while meta-analysis was used to describe and summarize our quantitative results. Meta-synthesis of qualitative data included thematic synthesis techniques, which combined and adapted approaches from meta-grounded theory and meta-ethnographies approaches. Our meta-analysis used standard techniques for prevalence and aetiology questions to summarize our findings across regions and, when appropriate, across the global literature. These approaches build on the teams’ experience conducting cross-region comparative analyses using mixed methods.

Meta-Synthesis Topics:

For the development of the proposal, we conducted meta-synthesis of our IHACC databases for the following topics:

  • Gender and sex dimensions
  • Social inequities
  • Climate change adaptation
  • Indigenous Knowledge at the climate-health-food nexus